The flipped classroom is an exciting new instructional approach. As it is relatively new, much of the information about it only is available in the popular press. Little research can be found. On this page, I am pulling together what I can find relevant to flipped classrooms. Enjoy!

  • What does this look like in K-12 classrooms?

In Aaron Sams' Chemistry classroom
In Katie Gimbar's Grade 8 Math classroom

as found on YouTube

as found on YouTube

Why did Katie Gimbar flip her math class?
Jonathan Bergmann and Aaron Sams in a podcast about Flipped Learning

as found on YouTube
Flipped Learning in High School Chemistry March 11, 2011

  • What is a Flipped Classroom?

The Flipped Classroom... Reverse Instruction... Blended learning... Teacher Vod-casting... Pre-teaching... Fisch Flip... Explore-Flip-Apply... The Inverted Classroom...

Aaron Sams, pioneer of this technique would like you to realize that the flipped classroom is not a one-size fits all model. It is actually an ideology with various versions. Check out his blog entry at There is No Such Thing as THE Flipped Classroom.

Check out this great visual showing four methods of flipping the classroom, as presented by Ramsey Musallam at Flipteaching. Click on the live-link to take you to the wiki page. Once you are there, follow the directions as to how to use the boxes. The comparisons are worthwhile. There are also very interesting blog entries on the Flipteaching blog.

The information in this chart is my interpretation of a best-case scenario.
Original photo of hourglass posted on Flickr by Jamiesrabbits

  • Who is associated with this approach?

Aaron Sams & Jonathan Bergmann are highlighted on the Flipped Learning Network. These individuals are credited as originating flip teaching.
Salman Khan with the Khan Academy Recognized by Bill Gates, Salman Khan has produced a wealthy of vodcasts free for teachers to use.
Ramsey Musallam with Flipteaching. Consider one more step, blending inquiry teaching with flip teaching.
Karl Fisch at The Fischbowl and shifthappens. Fisch is a high school staff developer in Colorado, who blogs about innovative teaching approaches.

  • What does the research say?

Lage, M., Platt, G., & Treglia, M. (2000). Inverting the classroom: A gateway to creating an inclusive learning environment. The Journal of Economic Education, 31(1), 30-43.

Musallam, R. (2010). The effects of using screencasting as a multimedia pre-training tool to manage the intrinsic cognitive load of chemical equilibrium instruction for advanced high school chemistry students (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

Sugar, W., Brown, A., & Luterback, K. (2010). Examining the anatomy of a screencast: Uncovering common elements and instructional strategies. //International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning//, 11(3), 1-20. (This is journal is available through Creative Commons).

  • What is being said about it?

Please note that the School Administrator articles are not linked out, as this is a journal for purchase.
Corcoran, J. (2013). Flipping reading lessons at a Title 1 School. School Administrator, 3(70), 22-23.
Facing reading scores that did not shift, Corcoran outlines how his school used the flipped classroom approach to engage students with reading. Student gains were significant, particularly with high-risk learners.
Fulton, K. (2013). Grassroots gains: Byron's flipped classrooms. School Administrator, 3(70), 26-32.
Fulton describes how one rural high school math department got rid of their textbooks in favour of using videos that they created and used in a flipped classroom approach. Despite the concerns of unblocking certain sites and using cell phones, the students are showing greater learning and the approach has spread.
Burton, A. (2013). My mistake thinking in flipped classroom. School Administrator, 3(70), 29.
Burton outlines four mistakes she made as a rookie using the flipped classroom approach and her solutions. She includes the need for students to understand the rationale for the change to the new approach, to learn how to view a video and review necessary sections, to view their teacher in the video, and to make sure everyone had access to the technology.
Twomey, P. (2013). Reluctant adopters don't stop a whole-school flip. School Administrator, 3(70), 30-31.
Twomey documents how a rural high school completely flipped its delivery. In this largely high-poverty area, problems with access to the internet were solved by downloading the lessons onto dvds and thumbdrives. Reluctant teachers were encouraged to take the lead in this initiative.
Atkin, M. (2013). Web access first, then let the flipping commence. School Administrator, 3(70), 21.
Atkin addresses the dilemma of access to computers for low-income and at-risk students. Computers must be supplied before students can be expected to view the material sent out by their teachers ahead of time. Internet service must accompany the computers.
LaFee, S. (2013). Flipped learning. School Administrator, 3(70), 19-25
LaFee offers an excellent oversight of what the world of flipped classrooms can involve. He refers to the opinions of proponents and those who are skeptical. The role of the administrator is also outlined.
The Flipped Class: Shedding Light on the confusion, critique, and hype Blog posting by Aaron Sams Nov. 11, 2011 (co-creater of The Flipped Classroom)
Sams offers a caution to readers to realize there are many versions of the flipped classroom. One should do their research and be reflective before adopting a new approach whole-heartedly. He suggests the best approach is to be reflective and adapt the approach to suit one's given classroom situation. In the truest sense, a flipped classroom is simply teacher delivery of content through screencasts.
Explore-Flip-Apply: Introduction and Example 1
Wiki page from Flipteaching by Ramsey Musallam, posted Sept. 26, 2011
Musallam says flip teaching is more than simply reordering your lesson sequence, rather you must examine the pedagogy as well. Tapping into your students' prior knowledge before beginning the lesson continues to be vital if students are going to be active learners. Students need a chance to form their own models first, as in the explore - flip-apply model. Musallam blends inquiry-based teaching with the flip. His wiki has examples and plenty of guidelines with resources. If you read any one resource, start with Flipteaching.
Reverse and Improve Your Instruction with Screencasts: Lecture at home, practice at school This blog posting is found on Stretch your Digital Dollar on Feb. 28, 2011 by Katy Scott.
Scott reflects on Musallam's approach after hearing him speak. She summarizes the process clearly and gives examples of how this might work in K-12 Math classes, as well as middle years and senior years English Language Arts.
Khan Academy: Where does it Fit?
Blog posting in Connect Principals by Jonathan Martin on 9/04/10.
Martin asks his readers to consider how Khan's approach might be used in their school's classrooms. Is it suitable in bite-sized bits or do we need to embrace the whole flip-teaching model?
Think Tank: Flip-thinking - the new buzz word sweeping the US Newspaper article by Daniel Pink in The Telegraph on Sept. 12, 2010
Pink challenges us to consider how we can "flip" practices in our lives. He presents the Fisch Flip in classrooms and then gives additional examples from the publishing industry and business.

  • What will help you do this?

Katie Gimbar suggests creating your own videos

as found on YouTube
If you wish to use prepared videos, check out these sites.

Khan Academy
7 Things You Need to Know about Flipping the Classroom
Flipped Learning Network